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The Lion of Judah (4) The Death of Jesus

A 4 Death of Jesus

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The Lion of Judah  Book  4:  The Death of Jesus

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Selection from The Lion of Judah (4) The Death of Jesus:  The Tree

The Lion of Judah Series
1  The Titles of Jesus
2  The Reign of Jesus
3  The Life of Jesus
4  The Death of Jesus
5  The Resurrection of Jesus
6  The Spirit of Jesus
7  The Lion of Judah

Selection from (1) The Titles of Jesus: Aslan – The Lion of Judah
Selection from (2) The Reign of Jesus: Appendix – China Miracle
Selection from (3) The Life of Jesus: Prayer, Crowds and Healing
Selection from (4) The Death of Jesus:  The Tree
Selection from (5) The Resurrection of Jesus: Biblical accounts

Selection from (6) The Spirit of Jesus: Testimonies

Cover art by Rebecca Brogan – www.jtbarts.com

Emblem_of_Jerusalem.svg
Jerusalem Emblem: The Lion of Judah
The Hebrew word is Jerusalem

Contents of (4) the Death of Jesus

This book surveys the significance of the death of Jesus on the cross using key verses and passages and a harmony of the Gospels, including this chart summary:

Introduction
The Old Testament foretold Jesus’ death
Jesus foretold his death
Holy Week
The Resurrection and Ascension
Reflections on Jesus’ Death and Resurrection
New Testament
Other Sources
Conclusion

Holy Week

Holy week, from Jesus’ triumphal entry into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday to his death and resurrection, is by far the greatest week in history.

Jesus, the Lamb of God, the Son of God, the Saviour of the world, chose to be crucified in Jerusalem at the Passover festival. He became our Passover Lamb, slain from the foundation of the world.

The Old Testament points to Jesus, the Messiah, God’s Anointed One. The New Testament tells his story and calls us to respond in faith to his gift of salvation and eternal life.

Key Passages

Holy Week: the last week of the earthly life of Jesus may be summarized this way as a general guide. The different Gospels record different events, each one telling the Gospel, the good news, in their own way. So this arrangement is just an estimate of the sequence of the momentous developments in Holy Week.

This summary follows the outline in Mark’s Gospel:
Selections from The Lion of Judah (4) The Death of Jesus

Palm Sunday – Day of Demonstration
Mark 11:1-11 (Zech 9:9) – Jesus enters Jerusalem

Monday – Day of Authority
Mark 11:12-19 – fig tree, temple cleansed

Tuesday – Day of Conflict
Mark 11:20 – 13:36 – debates with leaders

Wednesday – Day of Preparation
Mark 14:1-11 – anointed at Bethany

Thursday – Day of Farewell
Mark 14:12-42 – last supper

Good Friday – Day of Crucifixion
Mark 14:43 – 15:47 – trials and death

Saturday – Day of Sabbath
Mark 15:46-47 – tomb sealed

Easter Sunday – Day of Resurrection
Mark 16:1-18 – resurrection appearances

The following selections give highlights of key events that week.

These passages remind us of events from the most momentous week in all history, and indeed in all eternity. The Lamb of God, slain from the foundation of the world, took our sin upon himself, died in our place, and conquered death. He alone is the Saviour of the World. All who believe in him, all who trust him, will not die but live for ever with him.

Holy Week: Confrontation

Description Location Scripture
The supper in Simon’s house Bethany Mt 26:6-13 Mk 14:3-9 Jn 12:1-9
Mary anoints Jesus Bethany Mt 26:7-13 Mk 14:3-8 Jn 12:3-8
Triumphal entry into the city Jerusalem Mt 21:1-11, Mk 11:1-10, Lk 19:29-44 Jn 12:12-19
Survey of the Temple Jerusalem Mk 11:11
Retirement to Bethany Bethany Mk 11:11
Withering of the barren fig-tree Olivet Mt 21:18-19, Mk 11:12-14
Second cleansing of the Temple Jerusalem Mt 21:12-17 Mk 11:15-19, Lk 19:45-48
Retirement to Bethany Bethany Mt 21:17, Mk 11:19
The lesson of the fig-tree Olivet Mt 21:20-22, Mk 11:20-25
Discourses in the Temple: Jerusalem Mk 11:26
The rulers’ question Jerusalem Mt 21:23-27, Mk 11:27-33, Lk 20:1-8
The parable of the two sons Jerusalem Mt 21:28-32
Parable of the wicked husbandmen Jerusalem Mt 21:33-46, Mk 12:1-12, Lk 20:9-19
Parable of the wedding garment Jerusalem Mt 22:1-14
The subtle questions:-
1) of the Pharisees – the tribute money Jerusalem Mt 22:15-22, Mk 12:13-17, Lk 20:20-26
2) of the Sadducees – the resurrection Jerusalem Mt 22:23-33, Mk 12:18-27, Lk 20:27-39
3) of the Lawyer – the great commandment Jerusalem Mt 22:34-40, Mk 12:28-34
Our Lord’s counter question Jerusalem Mt 22:41-46 Mk 12:35-37, Lk 20:41-44
Scribes and Pharisees denounced Jerusalem Mt 23:13-33
The widow’s mite Jerusalem Mk 12:41-44, Lk 21:1-4
The coming of the Greeks Jerusalem Jn 12:20-36
The departure to the Mt of Olives Olivet Mt 24:1-3, Mk 13:1-3
Prediction 1: the destruction of Jerusalem Olivet Mt 24:3-28, Mk 13:3-23, Lk 21:5-24
Parable of fig-tree and all the trees Olivet Mt 24:32,33, Mk 13:28,29, Lk 21:29-32
Prediction 2: of the second coming Olivet Mt 24:28-51, Mk 13:23-37, Lk 21:24-36
Parable of the householder Olivet Mk 13:34
Parables:- The ten virgins Olivet Mt 25:1-13
Parables:- The talents Olivet Mt 25:14-30
Parables:- The sheep and the goats Olivet Mt 25:31-46
The Sanhedrin in council Jerusalem Mt 26:3-5, Mk 14:1-2, Lk 22:1-2
Compact of the traitor Jerusalem Mt 26:14-16, Mk 14:10,11, Lk 22:3-6


The Last Supper

Preparation of the Passover Jerusalem Mt 26:17-19, Mk 14:12-16, Lk 22:7-13
Washing the apostles’ feet Jerusalem Jn 13:1-17
The breaking of bread Jerusalem Mt 26:26, Mk 14:22, Lk 22:19
‘One of you shall betray me’ Jerusalem Mt 26:21, Mk 14:18, Lk 22:21, Jn 13:21
‘Is it I ?’ Jerusalem Mt 26:22-25, Mk 14:19
Giving of the dipped bread Jerusalem Jn 13:26,27
Departure of Judas Iscariot Jerusalem Jn 13:30
Peter warned Jerusalem Mt 26:34, Mk 14:30, Lk 22:34, Jn 13:38
Blessing the cup Jerusalem Mt 26:27-28 Mk 14:23-24 Lk 22:17
The discourses after supper Jerusalem Jn 14:1-16:33
Christ’s prayer for his apostles Jerusalem Jn 17:1-17:26
The hymn Jerusalem Mt 26:30, Mk 14:26


Gethsemane and Trials

The agony Gethsemane Mt 26:37, Mk 14:33, Lk 22:39, Jn 18:1
The thrice-repeated prayer Gethsemane Mt 26:39-44, Mk 14:36-39, Lk 22:42
Sweat and angel support Gethsemane Lk 22:43-44
The sleep of the apostles Gethsemane Mt 26:40-45, Mk 14:37-41, Lk 22:45-46
Betrayal by Judas Gethsemane Mt 26:47-50, Mk 14:34,44, Lk 22:47, Jn 18:2-5
Peter smites Malchus Gethsemane Mt 26:51, Mk 14:47, Lk 22:50, Jn 18:10
Jesus heals the ear of Malchus Gethsemane Lk 22:51
Jesus forsaken by disciples Gethsemane Mt 26:56, Mk 14:50
Jesus led to Annas Jerusalem Jn 18:12-13
Jesus tried by Caiaphas Jerusalem Mt 26:57, Mk 14:53, Lk 22:54, Jn 18:15
Peter follows Jesus Jerusalem Mt 26:58, Mk 14:54, Lk 22:55, Jn 18:15
The high priest’s adjuration Jerusalem Mt 26:63, Mk 14:61
Jesus condemned, buffeted, mocked Jerusalem Mt 26:66,67, Mk 14:64-65, Lk 22:63-65
Peter’s denial of Christ Jerusalem Mt 26:69-75, Mk 14:66-72, Lk 22:54-62, Jn 18:17-27
Jesus before Pilate Jerusalem Mt 27:1-2, Mk 15:1, Lk 23:1 Jn 18:28
Repentance of Judas Jerusalem Mt 27:3
Pilate comes out to the people Jerusalem Jn 18:29
Pilate speaks to Jesus privately Jerusalem Jn 18:33
Pilate orders him to be scourged Jerusalem Mt 27:26 Mk 15:15 Jn 19:1
Jesus crowned with thorns Jerusalem Mt 27:29 Mk 15:17 Jn 19:2
‘Behold the man’ Jerusalem Jn 19:5
Jesus accused formally Jerusalem Mt 27:11 Mk 15:2 Lk 23:2
Jesus sent by Pilate to Herod Jerusalem Lk 23:6-11
Jesus mocked, arrayed in purple Jerusalem Lk 23:6-11
‘Behold your King’ Jerusalem Jn 19:14
Pilate desires to release him Jerusalem Mt 27:15, Mk 15:6, Lk 23:17, Jn 19:12
Pilate’s wife message Jerusalem Mt 27:19
Pilate washes his hands Jerusalem Mt 27:24
Pilate releases Barabbas Jerusalem Mt 27:26
Pilate delivers Jesus to be crucified Jerusalem Mt 27:26, Mk 15:15, Lk 23:25 Jn 19:16


Crucifixion

Simon of Cyrene carries the cross Jerusalem Mt 27:32, Mk 15:21, Lk 23:26
They give Jesus vinegar and gall Golgotha Mt 27:34, Mk 15:23, Lk 23:36
They nail him to the cross Golgotha Mt 27:35, Mk 15:24-25, Lk 23:33, Jn 19:18
The superscription Golgotha Mt 27:37, Mk 15:26, Lk 23:38, Jn 19:19
1) Father, forgive them Golgotha Lk 23:34
His garments parted, and vesture allotted Golgotha Mt 27:35, Mk 15:24, Lk 23:34, Jn 19:23
Passers-by rail, the two thieves revile Golgotha Mt 27:39-44, Mk 15:29-32, Lk 23:35
The penitent thief Golgotha Lk 23:40
2) Today you will be with me … Golgotha Lk 23:43
3) Woman, behold your son. … Golgotha Jn 19:26,27
Darkness over all the land Golgotha Mt 27:45, Mk 15:33, Lk 23:44,45
4) My God, my God, why … ? Golgotha Mt 27:46, Mk 15:34
5) I thirst Golgotha Jn 19:28
The vinegar Golgatha Mt 27:48, Mk 15:36, Jn 19:29
6) It is finished Golgotha Jn 19:30
7) Father, into your hands … Golgotha Lk 23:46
Rending of the veil Jerusalem Mt 27:51, Mk 15:38, Lk 23:45
Graves opened, saints resurrected Jerusalem Mt 27:52
Testimony of Centurion Golgotha Mt 27:54, Mk 15:39, Lk 23:47
Watching of the women Golgotha Mt 27:55, Mk 15:40, Lk 23:49
The piercing of his side Golgotha Jn 19:34
Taking down from the cross The Garden Mt 27:57-60, Mk 15:46, Lk 23:53, Jn 19:38-42
Burial by Joseph of Arimethea, Nicodemus The Garden Mt 27:57-60, Mk 15:46, Lk 23:53, Jn 19:38-42
A guard placed over the sealed stone

Back to The Lion of Judah

Garden Mt 27:65-66

 

 

Pentecostalism’s Global Language, interview with Walter Hollenweger

 Dr Walter Hollenweger was Professor of Mission at the University of Birmingham.  His books The Pentecostals (1972) and Pentecosalism (1997) are landmark volumes.

It’s not tongues but
a different way of being a Christian

 Why is Pentecostalism so popular? It is now over half a billion strong worldwide, and has been and continues to be the fastest growing Christian movement in the world. It has made inroads not only in third-world regions like Africa and Latin America, but it also continues to attract huge followings in the United States and Europe.

 Walter J. Hollenweger is the leading expert on worldwide Pentecostalism, which he has been studying for more than 40 years. Having grown up in the Pentecostal church, he later became ordained in the Reformed Church of Switzerland. From 1965 to 1971 he was executive secretary of the World Council of Churches, then served as professor of mission at England’s University of Birmingham for 18 years. His seminal book The Pentecostals (Hendrickson, 1972) was recently followed up by Pentecostalism: Origins and Developments Worldwide (Hendrickson, 1997).

What is a Pentecostal?

Worldwide there is so much variety that about all one can say is that a Pentecostal is a Christian who calls himself a Pentecostal. Though Americans tend to focus on the gift of tongues, overall Pentecostals emphasize that God has given several gifts – not just speaking in tongues but also healing and the so-called rational gifts like organization or building a school. Diverse gifts to diverse people. It’s not a strictly theological definition but a phenomenological one.

Why is speaking in tongues the focus in America?

There are many reasons, of course, but one is that American and other middle-class cultures, as in Switzerland, find tongues an extraordinary phenomenon, so these experiences get a lot of attention. In Africa or Mexico, on the other hand, speaking in tongues and healings are not considered extraordinary – they can even be found in some indigenous pagan religions. (Speaking in tongues is not even “supernatural,” as many Pentecostals have found out.) Tongues aren’t even spoken in a lot of third-world Pentecostal churches. Instead, third-world Pentecostals focus on corporate worship, singing together, and Christian education. American Pentecostals don’t seek education as much as an experience of the supernatural.

What have been the key changes in Pentecostalism?

First, more and more young Pentecostals are becoming scholars through reputable universities. It’s true for Pentecostals in Europe, North America, and Latin America. It’s also true for Africa and for Asia.

There are now several hundred young Pentecostal scholars with doctorates, and that, of course, changes the breadth and depth of Pentecostalism. Most of them have maintained their roots in Pentecostalism, so they are now bilingual. They can speak in the university language, in the language of concepts and definitions, but they can also speak in the oral language of Pentecostalism, and I think that is an extremely important part of their success.

Second, this increase in education has led in many places to more ecumenical openness. In the past, nobody wanted to talk to the Pentecostals, and the Pentecostals didn’t want to talk to any of the other churches because they saw them as a lost cause. Now, for instance, there is a worldwide dialogue between Pentecostals and Roman Catholics that has been going on for 20 years. There have also been many contacts with the World Council of Churches, and the latest example is a global dialogue with the Presbyterian churches.

David du Plessis, a pioneer in ecumenism, has been instrumental in both these changes. He went to the Catholics. He went to the World Council of Churches. He went to all the universities. And the fact that he was a reasonable man and also a Pentecostal astonished many people. They thought Pentecostals were all a little crazy and could not think properly. But when they got to know him, they realized that it is possible to speak in tongues and be a critical scholar.

Another change, of course, is the worldwide explosive growth to nearly half a billion adherents.

Why is Pentecostalism so popular?

Some scholars think it has to do with its theology and doctrine. But Pentecostal theology is not homogeneous. Others think it’s because of Pentecostals’ aggressive evangelism. That is partly true because a real Pentecostal is by definition an evangelist, whose faith is as infectious as the flu.

The most important reason is that it is an oral religion. It is not defined by the abstract language that characterizes, for instance, Presbyterians or Catholics. Pentecostalism is communicated in stories, testimonies, and songs. Oral language is a much more global language than that of the universities or church declarations. Oral tradition is flexible and can adapt itself to a variety of circumstances.

Can’t oral tradition drift off into sub-Christian and even heretical beliefs?

Certainly, but overall there is a basic evangelical consensus among Pentecostals. They are similar to the early church in this respect. Early Christians didn’t have a formal, written confession of faith, as Presbyterians and others do today. They had the stories of Jesus. Even Jesus didn’t spell out doctrine; he gave his followers stories of miracles, and taught through proverbs and parables.

The earliest church was united, but not as much through their theology as through the Lord’s Prayer, Paul’s collection for Jerusalem (his theological “enemies”), baptism, and the Eucharist. Their statements of faith were simple, and the simplest was “Jesus is Lord.” It was a very different way of achieving togetherness, and it was achieved through these oral forms.

Ironically, when the ecumenical confessions came later, they did not unite the church. They divided it, as propositional theology always does. But across divided theology, it is possible to pray together, to sing together, and to act together. That’s what Pentecostals do at their best.

Is it fair to say that when you convert to Pentecostalism, you are converting not to a certain theology but to a new experience of faith?

Yes, and that has important evangelistic consequences for Pentecostals.

In many circles, when you become a Christian, you talk about gaining a new understanding of the Lord’s Supper and baptism (they are either more or less sacramental), but other people are not terribly interested in that. When you become a Pentecostal, you talk about how you’ve been healed or your very life has been changed. That’s something Pentecostals talk about over and over, partly because people are interested in hearing that sort of thing.

Pentecostalism today addresses the whole life, including the thinking part. More mainline forms of Christianity address the thinking part first and that often affects the rest of life, but not always.

Yet it seems most Pentecostals are far more right-brained and intuitive than left-brained and rational.

Indeed, the “orality” of Pentecostalism – the singing, the dancing, the speaking in tongues – accents the intuitive. But a mature Pentecostal will try to connect the intuitive and the rational. Always emphasizing the analytical will destroy faith. But only emphasizing the intuitive leads to chaos. A challenge of the Pentecostal movement is to combine rational thinking with its spontaneous emotional side.

This is the challenge for all Christians, really. The rationalist needs the Toronto Blessing and has to be slain in the Spirit to realize that. It sometimes seems silly to me, but you’ll notice that it is rationalists and intellectuals who fall down. People who have a balanced emotional and intuitive life don’t need that. True, some rationalists dance, sing, go walking in the mountains, or play a musical instrument, but then they go back to their science, to rational lives, and the two are not connected.

What most concerns you as you think about Pentecostalism in the coming century?

First, Pentecostalism must confront its tendency to segregate and separate into countless denominations. It’s happening all the time, and it really is a scandal.

The other challenge is common to all Christian churches: What do we do with the ecological threat to the world? What do we do with the threat of hunger and the plight of refugees? It’s a challenge that will hit Pentecostals harder than any other churches because their largest churches are on the poor side of the world. But as Christians, we have a contribution to make — not just in money but in prayer and in developing solutions that politicians cannot.

But Pentecostals are not known for their social activism.

That’s true in some ways, but it is a misconception in others. Many of Martin Luther King’s marchers were black Pentecostals. In Brazil there are many Pentecostals sitting in parliament. And in many third-world countries, Pentecostals are trying to develop new ways of gaining political influence without the game playing we have in the West. In Latin America, for example, they try to work with sectors of the Catholic church to get water or a school or a new street for a poor district. So there are quite a number of places where Pentecostals take up the structural issues, but they do not take them up by founding political parties. They start from the local needs and the local misery people experience every day.

Copyright 1998 by the author of Christianity Today, Inc./Christian History Magazine.

Spring 1998, Vol.XVII, No. 2, Page 42.  Used with permission.

(c) Renewal Journal 13: Ministry, 1998, 2012.
Reproduction is allowed with the copyright included in the text.

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